JustinCEO Topic

Continuing the discussion from Chat Room/Open Topic Experiment - #60 by Fire

Yes, I think Rand’s non-fiction is typically way easier than Popper’s. Popper’s earliest stuff, like The Logic of Scientific Discovery, is what I found the hardest (I’ve actually never made it all the way through LScD), and his later stuff, like Unended Quest, is what I found the easiest. Note that LScD was originally written in German, which is probably part of the issue.

I don’t think it comes down to subject matter (you might want to check out Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology, since that’s regarded as the driest and most technical thing Rand wrote, and see what you think). I think Rand was a better, clearer, more concise, “punchier” writer than Popper. Popper’s writing style is way more academic.

Sorry for the late reply Justin. I hope you have been doing well.

I would say that my goals are similar, but most of my motivation comes from wanting to feel stronger, etc. I know long-term health is important but I don’t find it especially motivating in the short-term. Feeling stronger/faster/more flexible has tangible benefits when doing activities I enjoy (dancing, sports). Seeing my progression translate from exercise to dancing helps a lot in motivating me to exercise. Do you have any activities where you like to “use” your gains from exercise? (quotation marks because you obviously use your muscles everyday when you walk around, sit on the couch, etc.)

The breakdown graph you shared is really cool. I’m guessing it’s from a smart watch or heart rate monitor? Seems like a really good balance of fitness activities

Have you spent much time working on your posture? I think posture is one of the lower levels in my “knowledge skyscraper” for exercising, playing sports, etc. I used to ignore problems with my posture because I wanted to focus on lifting more weight or being faster. So all of my exercises and stretches were done with bad posture, increasing the likelihood of injury and limiting my potential growth.

Mostly I’ve just enjoyed feeling better when just walking around or doing everyday tasks like bringing groceries in and the like.

It’s from an app called HeartWatch that connects to my Apple Watch.

Regarding balance of activities, when I was in worse condition I had to vary my activities a lot just to be able to do any exercise at all (since I’d start hurting really quickly from any one thing), so I established good habits as far as that.

I haven’t done much on posture specifically. I think the strength and stretching stuff helps that a bit, but it’s not something I’ve focused on.

Continuing the discussion from General Philosophy Questions:

Two of the lectures and some of the exercises from Peikoff’s Introduction to Logic Course concern definitions (from the perspective of applying rules to definition-formulation that are considered part of logic). I have a short summary of the content and my answers to the exercises on my blog. For 5 of the exercises, Peikoff really “chewed” on various possibilities for a definition and talked about the analysis you would go into; these were some of my favorite exercises of the course.

I don’t know if you do note-taking while reading or use flashcards, but those are two things that could help you retain definitions that other people provide.


Continuing the discussion from Curiosity – Caffeine Is Bad:

I wrote a lot of relevant stuff starting here Gaslighting discussion (split from: Justin’s Miscellaneous Posts) - #118 by anonymous64

Continuing the discussion from Curiosity – Caffeine Is Bad:

I just tried the Hazelnut Teeccino and I liked it. It has some carbs from the dates and figs they use to sweeten it, so it is not an every day food for me, but it hit the “hot coffee-tasting drink” craving. I added only heavy cream, no extra sweetener. It wasn’t as good as what I would get from my Nespresso. It reminded me of a cup of coffee I might get at Panera Bread or make from a decent instant mix. Overall, it was surprisingly good considering it’s really tea.

Continuing the discussion from David Deutsch’s Gossip and Harassment Leadership:

This post was already very succinct and to the point, but I made a shorter bullet-points-style for myself. I thought it was a good post.

  • Link: https://curi.us/2562-david-deutschs-gossip-and-harassment-leadership
  • DD's Responsibility: DD actively gossips and lies about ET in places where it can't be observed. This is the root cause of most of the harassment.
    • Establishing that DD Gossips
      • DD has the general character of a mean gossip. See e.g. Curiosity – David Deutsch’s Gossip and Harassment Leadership
      • DD has directly tried to turn two current ET forum members against ET, and DD's close associates have done so as well.
        • Likely that ET knows about only a subset of such incidents.
      • Weird pattern of either non-interaction or people ghosting ET after some friendly discussion. Specifically comes up with people interested in CR. ET's best explanation is people are being told gossip.
      • LT shared examples of DD gossiping which she observed in email/IMs/IRL. Also said DD had negative attitude towards ET.
        • DD told someone an anon post was written by ET, implying ET's community is small/has sockpuppets.
          • Comment: I have some intuitive partial disagreement with this one but am having trouble articulating it well.
        • DD relied on friendship with ET to speculate more effectively about whether an anon poster was ET, violating privacy.
          • Comment: Violating privacy cuz he shared the speculation, not just because he speculated in his own mind, right?
        • DD said ET fans should be treated as sockpuppets even if not actually. This may have gotten ET fans harassed too.
      • DD has armed harassers with anti-ET ideas. E.g. AndyB echoed DD's idea that ET community has sockpuppets.
      • DD spent 5 years turning LT against ET. DD is father figure to LT. LT is dependent on DD for career/money/ideas/status and felt pressured.
    • Impact of DD's Gossip to LT
      • LT could have stopped harassment campaign after ET caught AndyB's sockpuppets due to her social status in CritRat community.
      • ET's personal friendship with DD and LT gives DD and LT credibility in spreading lies about ET and being believed.
      • DD is distant from fans and needs someone like LT to discreetly spread false lies to public.
      • Turning LT against ET took large effort for years since LT was big ET fan who resisted. Shows DD is willing to spend big effort in controlling/harming people.
      • DD encouraged LT and ET to become friends for a long time before it happened. That makes destroying that friendship especially mean.
      • LT tweeted a lot of stuff to undermine CF and alienate people from it.
        • They also attack Ayn Rand as a proxy for ET.
      • People (including person who was ultimately worse harasser, AndyB, when AndyB was still trying to learn from ET and before he went aggro) were reading LT's subtle attacks on ET, feeling torn about conflict between DD and ET communities, and wanting to talk about LT's attacks.
    • Conclusion
      • DD has spent 10+ years gossiping and making people hostile to ET. That makes him leader even though public actions have been few. Turning LT was biggest/most impactful example of gossip. Gossip -> hostility -> harassment.

Left my cell phone provider, Visible, yesterday. Got an email a few days ago to “upgrade” to their new network and that “upgrade” broke my text messaging and Apple Watch cellular. Spent countless hours with support on their site and Twitter trying to get stuff resolved, getting told everything would be fixed in 4 hours, restarting my devices and resetting my network settings countless times, deleting and redownloading Visible app, deleting and reactivating eSim, getting reprovisioned, getting escalated to the “Advanced Triage Team” and told everything was fixed multiple times. I did get a flurry of backlogged text messages once but then it broke again (a customer service rep used this as a basis to claim that the text messaging was working, just inconsistent, lol). Huge waste of time. One of the worst customer service experiences I’ve ever had. I had mostly liked Visible up until this point but they really dropped the ball here.

I then tried to find an alternative service provider. Verizon’s site wouldn’t accept my Apple Watch’s IMEI. T-Mobile had a free trial but it doesn’t let you port in a number. So I wound up going with AT&T for now.

If on, say, the second day, someone had reached out and said something like “We realize this is really really egregious, especially since we asked you to upgrade at this time, and we’re sorry. Our highest level of escalation is working on it, and here’s a free month for your trouble”, then I probably would have stayed. But they just kept following their default support script and lying about when stuff would be fixed/whether stuff was fixed.

Most users are having no problem upgrading but some users – especially those with eSims apparently – are having major trouble. So it’s apparently leading to one of those dynamics where most people are like “lol it worked fine for me, did you restart your phone haha?” while a minority of people get heavily screwed.

Another thing is that I was talking to AT&T and they said there was a $35 activation fee to activate Apple Watch, and I was like uhhh can that we waived, and they were like oh sure lol. I know that sort of thing is common, but it seems weird for a huge corporate business to just sort of rip people off by default.

I think there’s something really wrong with the quality of telecom customer service, the inability of telecom companies to resolve technical issues in a timely manner, the incompetent implementation of their websites and apps, and the way they often seem to treat customers as marks rather than people trading value for value.

Disorganized thoughts…

I’ve been doing some activities lately and trying to be more focused, but I have a general issue with just trying to do too much stuff. I’ve gotten somewhat better at that but am still great at it yet.

One thing that I think has helped has been really sticking stuff for a while and paying active mental attention to the true time cost of things. I think if you have a bunch of half-finished (or quarter-finished, or eight-finished, or made-three-YouTube-videos-before-giving-up) projects, it can be easy to fool yourself about how much you are accomplishing and how much progress you are making, because if you’re stuck on one thing you can just say it’s just cuz you’re busy with the latest partially-finished thing. But if you actually stick with things for a while, and take them seriously, you start to realize how long things take. This also encourages you to think more carefully when selecting projects in the first place, instead of just jumping around at whim.

I’ve been working on a few different things. One was a professional-related learning project that I spent some amount of time on for most of a year (a tax credential that I thought might help pitch myself as a tax-focused attorney without having to spend a huge amount of money on a new degree or something like that). I think completing that successfully helped me develop some better learning habits (in terms of thinking about how to structure knowledge and the importance of repeatedly revisiting material in order to actually learn it), and I enjoyed learning the material, but unfortunately I’m not sure it will actually work out to be practically beneficial professionally. So that’s something that indicates that I should have given more care at the stage of criticizing the project. (This is the sort of acknowledgement of a mistake that would have used to make me feel very bad, btw. It doesn’t feel great to acknowledge the mistake, but I’m not upset about it. I am more able to have an it-is-what-it-is sort of attitude now).

I’ve also been going to an IRL philosophy reading group. It’s actually okay as far as those groups go, as it’s more serious and organized than lots of such groups – it’s almost like a graduate seminar or something. I have a couple of issues with it though. So it meets once a month for a couple of hours, and the amount of reading they want to do (like 200+ pages per session) is actually kind of a lot given the number of people that want to discuss (30+ people generally) and the depth they try to go into. I could spend like a week and a lot of words on a single chapter of a book if it’s interesting. Not necessary to go in depth as I did on Understanding Objectivism but I definitely think my preference is more towards that, towards like super careful reading and analysis. And so with the book group, I’ve gotten a sense a couple of times that I’m rushing through to finish the reading in time for group when I’d prefer to go slower, and so that seems bad. That’s the first issue. The second issue is the common one with non-CF type groups, even the relatively civil/serious ones, in that everyone just sort of respectfully shares their opinion and there’s no good way to resolve disputes or conflicts of ideas. I don’t think that sort of thing is valueless, since reading some material, interpreting it one way, and then hearing different perspectives on material can be valuable. But I don’t think the time I’m spending it relative to the value is a very good bargain. So I’m planning on going to the next reading group (since I already “paid” for that one time-wise) and then maybe taking a break.

I also have been going through Peikoff’s introduction to logic course. I actually “completed” the course according to my old standards of learning, in the sense of having gone through the lectures and done the exercises, but I don’t consider my efforts complete because I haven’t automatized the material yet. So that’s something I’m going to work on (as a somewhat low priority) for the next little bit. I do think the course had some serious issues especially re: induction and Peikoff’s presentation not being very thorough or clear on some points, but it was overall decent.

I’ve also been doing my fitness/health stuff, which takes a lot of my free time. And I don’t want to give that up, because I think that helps me in various ways. So realistically, having paid attention to how much time stuff actually takes, I think I can realistically do three things at a time in life:

  1. Work
  2. Fitness/health
  3. Third thing

This is leaving out the miscellaneous stuff of life like loading the dishwasher and doing laundry and minor errands. I’m talking in terms of major projects.

So Third Thing could be working on the philosophy skills tree/CF posting/learning activities. I think part of my objection to that has been that it seems like I would have to spend double full-time and it still wouldn’t be “enough” in some sense. Enough for what? The issue isn’t improvement, since of course if I spent more time on something I would improve at it (like I’ve done with fitness, or with learning about taxation, or whatever). The issue is “catching” up to either ET or some ideal in my head of what I think I “should” be. I think that attitude doesn’t make much sense. It’d be a bit like saying I shouldn’t exercise at all cuz I could never “catch up” to Arnold Schwarzenegger or Lance Armstrong or somebody. I haven’t had some dramatically visible body changes (yet, anyways) from my health and fitness activities. But I feel overall better, healthier, more flexible and so on. And that represents an improvement in my life. So why wouldn’t I want to make similar improvements in terms of my ideas?

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It’s been about three weeks since I quit caffeine†. I was very tired for like 2 to 2.5 weeks and have felt more energized in the past few days.

†I actually realized that I’ve been getting a bit of caffeine, since I have occasionally mixed a bit of cocoa powder with nut butter and eaten that. I’ve only used a bit, since I’m not sweetening the nut butter, so I have to rely on the natural sweetness of the nut butter, and if I add too much cocoa powder it gets bitter. But still, I have had some.

Continuing the discussion from Project: Part 0: Considering major life choices:

One reason people leave: Lots of people like something about the idea of philosophy and rationality, and may have some mixed ideas. But they basically don’t want to be challenged or criticized in an open-ended way that raises doubts about the rationality or morality of their life or what they choose to spend their time on. When they are so challenged, they leave.

Another: What people actually want to find is a social community where they can make friends, be mostly conventional, and dabble in philosophy as a hobby they can make in-jokes about. CF isn’t really a good place for that, so they find it “cold” and go find something more like what they want.

Another: People see that CF implies changing how they live their life but don’t really get the part where they’re supposed to build up step by step understanding of why any reforms they might make to their current life make sense. So they cargo cult and flame out under the pressure of suppression, or they just arbitrarily decide it’s a cult and say to hell with it.

Another: people misinterpret the meaning of some criticism and get triggered by it and go nuclear (I did this one :( ).

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I’ll admit this brings up some discomfort for me. I think this is something that could be a factor. I can sometimes overthink a fairly minor criticism and assume some sort of moral condemnation under it. I guess that could be okay in principle if I were to talk about it and challenge those assumptions, but I worry about questioning people’s motives over something fairly trivial and seeming suspicious/paranoid/hostile so sometimes (possibly often) I don’t say it.
I’m also self-conscious about my morality. There are a lot of parts of it that were unthinkingly taken on from parents/school/social circles/media that are fragmented and incoherent, they conflict with moral ideas I’ve embraced since I started studying philosophy. I probably still do stuff that’s related to that old fragmented morality and don’t consciously realise it because it’s “normal” to me.

So translating that to issues in principle:
Someone might leave because they think people are being passive-aggressive and don’t know how to question that in a productive way or think that questioning it has a risk of hurting their “status”. They’re expecting some relatively conventional social behaviour (people being passive-aggressive) and standards (of status).

I think that’s something I’ve done in the past in other contexts.

I guess there could be perceived social pressure behind that reason for leaving, people join and find out all these different ideas and might assume they have to act the part to be accepted. They might think that if they don’t, they’ll get rejected/kicked out. So from the perspective of someone thinking that way, not conforming has the same end result as quitting anyway.

Which I guess leads to another reason for leaving CF:
Someone might leave soon after joining because they think they’re expected to immediately start conforming to a bunch of ideas that they don’t understand, and they don’t want to suppress themselves.

Another reason someone might leave is after seeing the people who have been restricted to posting in just one thread for one reason or another (such as yourself and doubtingthomas). I suppose under typical forum management an admin would just suspend/ban people who break forum rules so new users wouldn’t even see it happening so by contrast it could look mean and like it’s singling people out to publicly shame them. I only know that’s not the purpose from having looked through the context when I’ve seen it, but if I hadn’t already read a lot of Elliot’s articles and gotten the sense that there would almost certainly be a good reason behind it I might not done that.

Yeah it’s notable how giving people another chance in ways that are unconventional on most forums can actually leave people with a worse impression overall. It seems “mean” to people to “single someone out” as they say, but the real thing that they object to is making clear that there’s some sort of issue. If a mod just bans you then you can just chalk that off to mod unreasonableness and laugh it off like most people do (and truly lots of mods in most places are quite unreasonable) and go find another forum. But if you deal with some sort of posting restriction from someone who tells you what they think the problem was, that becomes a lot more difficult to just laugh off as someone being unreasonable. You have to acknowledge the situation more.

From my tree:

I’m trying to get back into the habit of reading non-fiction books (that aren’t in any way directly related to work/career stuff). I started relistening to a book on stoicism that I found very helpful.

I’m also working on actually fully learning some of the material from the Peikoff logic course I’ve been working on (at least the parts that I don’t have strong epistemology problems with!). I’m using flashcards for that.

Relatedly, I think the end of this passage captures a certain emotional reaction that people feel that causes them to leave (this is from A Guide to the Good Life: The Ancient Art of Stoic Joy, which I’m rereading, and emphatically recommend to everyone):

ACCORDING TO MUSONIUS [Rufus], we should study philosophy, since how otherwise could we hope to live well?14 Furthermore, he says that studying philosophy should affect us personally and profoundly; indeed, when a philosopher lectures, his words should make those in his audience shudder and feel ashamed, and when he is done speaking, they should, rather than applauding him, have been reduced to silence.15 According to Epictetus, Musonius himself apparently possessed the ability to reduce his audiences to silence, for when he spoke, his listeners felt as if he had discovered and laid before them those traits of which they were secretly ashamed.16

One difference between ET/CF and the stoic perspective as described here is that ET is not setting out to make people feel ashamed, whereas it sounds to me like Musonius might have been aiming at that. But ET is very focused on truth and rationality and not at all into flattering people and telling them they’re great when they’re not. Given how much that approach conflicts with lots of mainstream social interactions, people react in very negative ways. A related thing is how they negatively react to Elliot sharing his high opinion of his own philosophical skill. It’s related because a lot of social stuff is not about putting other people “down” (too explicitly) or building yourself “up” (too explicitly). Socially, you’re supposed to mostly avoid conflicts and not be too direct in your criticisms, and also at least fake humility instead of saying you think you’re pretty great. So that’s like two social strikes already and most people don’t require three to disengage.


The structure and high fiber content of nuts means that unless they are ground up or chewed completely, a good proportion will pass through the gut undigested.

Instead, it’s emptied into the bowels. As a result, some of the nutrients, such as fat, won’t be absorbed and are instead lost in feces.

This is another reason why nuts seem to be weight loss friendly.

In fact, studies have found that after eating nuts, the amount of fat lost through feces increased by 5% to over 20% (33Trusted Source, 34Trusted Source, 35Trusted Source, 36Trusted Source).

This suggests that a good portion of the fat in nuts is not even absorbed by your body.

Interestingly, how nuts are processed may have a large effect on how well nutrients like fat are absorbed.

For example, one study found that the amount of fat excreted in the feces was greater for whole peanuts (17.8%) than peanut butter (7%) or peanut oil (4.5%) (35Trusted Source).

From A Guide to the Good Life: The Ancient Art of Stoic Joy:

If you ask most people how to gain contentment, they will tell you that you must work to get it: You must devise strategies by which to fulfill your desires and then implement those strategies. But as Epictetus points out, “It is impossible that happiness, and yearning for what is not present, should ever be united.”3 A better strategy for getting what you want, he says, is to make it your goal to want only those things that are easy to obtain—and ideally to want only those things that you can be certain of obtaining.

Is this advice limited to material things? I think it has some sense to it in that limited context. In a broader context, it raises questions like: what if you yearn for an improved and more virtuous character? That’s not easy to obtain for most people, but I don’t think the Stoics would discourage someone from making serious efforts to obtain it. Maybe the trick there is to only want the next small improvement in character that you can make (which is relatively easy), rather than wanting to attain some lofty ideal that you torture yourself over not being able to reach.

I think this conceptually overlaps with another thread, my most relevant comment from that:

Which I think is consistent with:

Which I think is a reasonable interpretation of the Epictetus quote.

It also seems similar to the idea of focusing on the journey, not the destination. E.g. if you’re driving to the next city, you need to be thinking about how to drive not what you’re going to do when you get there. I think that’s a decent metaphor because you have to concentrate on the driving and even with a lot of experience and automation you still need a significant degree of alertness to the unexpected. I think focusing on the destination of a learning journey means taking concentration off learning the current thing.

This app appears to be more of a note-taking app than a traditional flashcard app (although the notes are organized as flashcards), but I actually like that, as I was often using Mochi in a way more like note-taking anyways. So it’s nice to have an app that’s more purpose built for that. I tried taking some notes from a chapter of A Guide to the Good Life: The Ancient Art of Stoic Joy to test the app out. In the below, each heading is the title of a notecard and the content that follows is the content of the card.

Won’t Stoics, due to their greater appreciation of the people and things around them, be pained more deeply when they lose stuff?


  • They’ll lack the guilt that comes from failing to appreciate people when you have them.
  • They’re mentally more prepared for loss due to contemplating it regularly.
  • Basically, they’ve trained themselves to appreciate stuff more without clinging to it.

Won’t Stoics be glum and anxiety-ridden due to all this negative visualization?


  1. Stoics just spend some time thinking about such things, not all the time.
  2. You can contemplate something without worrying about it. Contemplating is an intellectual exercise.
  3. Negative visualization can increase the extent to which people enjoy the world by reducing the degree to which people take things for granted.

Catastrophe-induced personal transformations vs negative visualizations

Catastrophes can knock people out of their jadedness and inability to appreciate what they have, but have several drawbacks that Negative Visualizations lack:

Catastrophe-induced personal transformations Negative Visualizations
Don’t happen to everyone Can be practiced by everyone
Might kill us Can’t kill us
Tend to wear off Can be done repeatedly and thus have indefinite benefits

What is Negative Visualization?

Contemplating negative events before they happen, such as the death of oneself, a loved one or the loss of friends to death or a falling-out.

Advantages of Negative Visualization

  1. Lets you think about ways to prevent bad things from happening
  2. Lessens impact when bad things do happen
  3. Helps you appreciate and have desire for the things you already have, forestalling Hedonic Adaptation
  4. They lack the downsides of catastrophe-induced personal transformations

Hedonic Adaptation

People work hard to get something and then grow bored of it after a while and want something else. E.g. people grow bored with new TV and want newer TV, or grow tired of current relationship and want new relationship.

Nice article. I thought the discussion of case and finite vs non-finite verbs was especially helpful as that is an aspect I have not paid much attention to.

I’m still playing with SuperNotes app and made some notecards about this article.

Nonfinite Verbs (Elliot Article)

  • Complete thought in English requires subject/verb/tense.
  • When verb is used for complete thought, it’s called a “finite” verb. This is a “normal” verb.
  • Verb used for incomplete thought is a “nonfinite” verb. In this role, verbs serve as nouns or modifiers, and can’t perform normal verb role, even though they have some characteristics of verbs.
  • “Nonfinite verbs use a word that’s based on a verb to communicate an idea, concept, trait or thing instead of communicating a complete thought about an action that happened or is happening.”


Case & Nonfinite Verbs

English has three main cases which are primarily used with pronouns. For example, “I” is the case indicating a subject, “me” indicates an object, and “my” indicates possessive. I/me/my are different forms of the same word which indicate different cases. When we aren’t using pronouns, the subject and object case are the same, e.g. “John” or “ball” can be a subject or object. The possessive case (“John’s” or “ball’s”) is different though.

Finite verbs use subject case for their subject and object case for their object. E.g. “He saw him.” shows different cases of the same word for the subject (“he”) and object (“him”).

Nonfinite verbs don’t specify case. They use object case for both subjects and objects. For example, consider “I regretted him leaving the company.” or “Him leaving the company was really hard for us.”. In both examples, the subject of the gerund “leaving” is “him” not “he”, even though “he” is the subject form of the word. Similarly, in “I wanted him to sing”, the subject of the infinitive “to sing” is “him” not “he”. Note, in the first example, “leaving” is the object of “regretted”. In the second example, “leaving” is the subject of “was” and “to sing” is the object of “wanted”. “Leaving” and “to sing” both play a noun role. The finite verbs are “regretted” and “was”.


a category or form which indicates whether a verb expresses fact (indicative mood), command (imperative mood), question (interrogative mood), wish (optative mood), or conditionality (subjunctive mood)

Incompleteness of Finite Verbs

Things finite verbs can be missing:

  • Subject
  • Tense
  • Object
  • Mood
  • Case

Types of Nonfinite Verbs

Tense Form Role
Gerunds None End in “ing” Noun
Participles Past and present Normally end in “ing” (present) or “ed” (past) Modifier
Infinitives None start with “to” and use base form of verb (e.g. “to clean”) Noun or modifier

Finite versus Nonfinite Verbs (Examples)

  • Finite verbs tell us some action happened and who or what is acting.
  • Nonfinite verbs refer to actions without them actually happening in the sentence.
    • E.g. In “I want to leave”, nonfinite “to leave” discusses an action (leaving) without the action being performed by anyone. The action being performed in the sentence is “want”.
    • E.g. In “I saw running water”, “running” describes a characteristic of the water rather than the action (which in this sentence, is “saw”).
    • E.g. In “Running is fun”, “running” is a noun representing the concept of running, and the link between running and “fun” (the “is”) is the finite verb.

Building Up a Sentence

  • Simple sentences can be thought of as starting with a verb and then adding more details until you have a complete thought.
  • Nonfinite verbs are incomplete by their nature, so you can’t form sentences around them.
    • Compete things are finite and don’t leave details left unspecified.
    • Complete things are independent, but nonfinite verbs serving as nouns (which are governed by a verb) or modifiers (which modify other words).