Learning Grammar #2 - More Parts Trees and Sentence Analyses

Project Summary

**Summary:**This project is for me to post my attempts to learn grammar. I am starting with the practice sentences from Elliot’s grammar article.

Goal

**Goal:**To post 5 critical reviews and or research posts related to my grammatical sentence analyses by 4/20/22.
**Metrics:**Minimum of 5 posts to review the learning project.
**Broader goal:**Learn philosophy prerequisites. Get better at reading analysis, power up and become a better learner.
**Values:**This is part of my higher level goal to learn philosophy and learn about having a great life.
**CF relevance:**Preparing for textual analysis.

Plan

**Plan:**I have already done 10 sentences from part 3 of the grammar article. I now plan to critically review for errors and research topical issues.
**Project size:**Medium
**Resource budget:**Overall this took about five hours already. Most of that time was diving into specific topics and going on related tangents. I was again re-reading the grammar article, googling grammar, and watching Max Tutoring videos (most of the way through #8 now). I think I will need about another 4-6 hours to complete.
**Asks:**Corrections on my analysis and trees. As it pertains to the next section in this template, I would like to hear some suggestions on what beginners can offer that might be of value.
**Offers:**The value I can see someone else getting from this is from teaching and analyzing my mistakes to see where beginners go wrong.
**Independence:**I will complete this project even if I don’t get any replies.
**Confidence:**I am 80% confident that I will succeed at the project. I have scaled down from my last project but I just don’t trust my ability to judge if I will follow through properly.
**Follow through:**I think that I can finish the project within the next week (4/20/22). My contingency plan if I find more to review or get more feedback than I can respond to within my time budget is to create another learning project to address those topics.

Context

**Context:**I am a native English speaker with a about an average intuition for the language.
**Background:**I analyzed the first 20 sentences from ET’s grammar article.
**Track Record:**My last learning project was fruitful. It didn’t succeed but I have scaled down.
**Priorities:**I have become convinced that learning grammar is important to learning many other topics well.
**Progress:**The 10 sentence analyses are already done.
**Problems:**I’m a bit worried about going on a tangent related to a grammar topic but not coming up with much to post. If I lost two hours to something of a dead end then I may not have as much time to look into more pertinent topics. I’m planning to try a bit of stop-loss at 20 minutes of research if I’m not finding much value in a topic of research/review.

Trees for the second round of sentences:

  1. Running fast isn’t fun.
    S-Expression: [is [Running [fast]] [not] [fun]]
    image

  2. I don’t want to stand on my porch when it’s wet.
    S-Expression: [when [do [I] [(not)] [want] [“to stand” [on [porch [my]]]]] [(is) [it] [wet]]]
    image

  3. Swimming after work is too tiring.
    S-Expression: [is [Swimming [after [work]]] [tiring [too]]]
    image

  4. John gets sweaty when he does his exercise routine.
    S-Expression: [when [gets [John] [sweaty]] [does [he] [routine [his] [exercise]]]]
    image

  5. I gave him gifts.
    S-Expression: [gave [I] [gifts [(to) [him]]]]
    image

  6. I love to throw boomerangs to myself.
    S-Expression: [love [I] [“to throw” [to [myself]]] [boomerangs]]
    image

  7. When a movie is boring, I stop watching.
    S-Expression: [When [is [movie [a]] [boring]] [stop [I] [watching]]]
    image

  8. I like reading non-fiction books out of order.
    S-Expression: [like [I] [reading [books [non-fiction]] [“out of” [order]]]]
    image

  9. My broken speakers don’t work for making sound.
    S-Expression: [do [speakers [My] [broken]] [(not)] [work [for [sound [making]]]]]
    image

  10. FYI, working at the CIA is cooler than the FBI.
    S-Expression: [is [working [at [CIA [the]]]] [cooler [than [FBI [the]]]] [for [information [your]]]]
    image

  1. Running fast isn’t fun.

Linking verb: ‘is’.

Subject: ‘running’.

Subject complement: ‘fun’.

‘Fast’ modifies ‘running’ (adjective).

‘Not’ modifies ‘is’ (adverb).

  1. I don’t want to stand on my porch when it’s wet.

Action verb: ‘do’ (auxiliary verb).

Subject: ‘I’.

‘Not’ modifies ‘do’ (adverb).

Main verb: ‘want’.

Object: ‘to stand’ (infinitive/noun).

Prepositional phrase: ‘on my porch’. The phrase functions as an adverb modifying ‘stand’. The preposition is ‘on’ and it governs the noun ‘porch’. ‘My’ is an adjective modifying ‘porch’.

Subordinate clause: ‘when it’s wet’.

Subordinate Conjunction: ‘when’.

Linking verb: ‘is’.

Subject: ‘it’.

Subject complement: ‘wet’.

  1. Swimming after work is too tiring.

Linking verb: ‘is’.

Subject: ‘swimming’.

Subject complement: ‘tiring’.

‘Too’ modifies ‘tiring’ (adverb). ‘Too’ is an adverb because it modifies an adjective, ‘tiring’. Oxford Languages (Google dictionary) and Merriam-Webster both have definitions of ‘too’ with its only part of speech being adverb.

Prepositional phrase: ‘after work’. The phrase functions as an adjective modifying ‘swimming’. The preposition is ‘after’ and it governs the noun ‘work’.

  1. John gets sweaty when he does his exercise routine.

Independent clause: ‘John gets sweaty’.

Action verb: ‘gets’.

Subject: ‘John’.

Object: ‘sweaty’.

Subordinate clause: ‘when he does his exercise routine’.

Subordinate conjunction: ‘when’.

Action verb: ‘does’.

Subject: ‘he’.

Object: ‘routine’.

‘His’ modifies ‘routine’ (adjective).

‘Exercise’ modifies ‘routine’ (adjective).

  1. I gave him gifts.

Action verb: ‘gave’.

Subject: ‘I’.

Object: ‘gifts’.

Implied prepositional phrase: ‘(to) him’. The phrase functions as an adverb modifying ‘gave’. The preposition is the implied word ‘(to)’ and it governs the noun ‘him’.

  1. I love to throw boomerangs to myself.

Action verb: ‘love’.

Subject: ‘I’.

Object: ‘boomerangs’.

The infinitive ‘to throw’ is an adverb that modifies ‘love’.

Prepositional phrase: ‘to myself’. The phrase functions as an adverb modifying ‘to throw’. The preposition is ‘to’ and it governs the noun ‘myself’.

  1. When a movie is boring, I stop watching.

Independent clause: ‘I stop watching’.

Action verb: ‘stop’.

Subject: ‘I’.

Object: ‘watching’ (gerund).

Subordinate clause: ‘when a movie is boring’.

Subordinate conjunction: ‘when’.

Linking verb: ‘is’.

Subject: ‘movie’.

Subject complement: ‘boring’.

‘A’ modifies ‘movie’ (adjective).

  1. I like reading non-fiction books out of order.

Action verb: ‘like’.

Subject: ‘I’.

Gerund phrase: ‘reading non-fiction books’. This whole phrase functions as the object of ‘like’.

Gerund: ‘reading’.

Direct object: ‘books’.

‘Non-fiction’ modifies ‘books’ (adjective).

Prepositional phrase: ‘out of order’. The phrase functions as an adverb modifying ‘reading’. The preposition is ‘out of’ and it governs the noun ‘order’.

I found the gerund phrase in this sentence confusing and I used the following article to aid my understanding:

  1. My broken speakers don’t work for making sound.

Action verb: ‘do’ (auxiliary verb).

Subject: ‘speakers’.

The main verb ‘work’ modifies ‘do’.

‘My’ modifies ‘speakers’ (adjective).

‘Broken’ modifies ‘speakers’ (adjective).

‘Not’ modifies ‘do’ (adverb).

Prepositional phrase: ‘for making sound’. The phrase functions as an adverb modifying ‘work’. The preposition is ‘for’ and it governs the ‘sound’. ‘Making’ is an adjective (participle) modifying ‘sound’. I’m pretty unsure about this one as it seems like ‘making’ could be a gerund. In that case it would function as the object of the preposition.

  1. FYI, working at the CIA is cooler than the FBI.

Linking verb: ‘is’.

Subject: ‘working’.

Subject complement: ‘cooler’. I think ‘cooler’ is an adjective.

Prepositional phrase: ‘at the CIA’. The phrase functions as an adjective modifying ‘working’. The preposition is ‘at’ and it governs the noun ‘CIA’. ‘The’ is an adjective (determiner) modifying ‘CIA’.

Prepositional phrase: ‘than the FBI’. The phrase functions as an adverb modifying ‘cooler’. The preposition is ‘than’ and it governs the noun ‘FBI’. ‘The’ is an adjective modifying ‘FBI’.

‘FYI’ is an abbreviation for the prepositional phrase: ‘for your information’. The phrase is an adverb that modifies the whole rest of the sentence. ‘For’ is the preposition and it governs the noun ‘information’. ‘Your’ is an adjective modifying ‘information’.

I looked through some of it and disagreed with 6 and 10.